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      https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/045/0022

    • Keywords

       

      Great Nicobar Island; Macaca fascicularis umbrosus; male–male relationships; mate competition

    • Abstract

       

      In primates, males compete for a mate, which is a non-sharable resource. This makes the conditions lessconducive for males to have stable relationships. One such special kind of relationship is a bond where theinteractions are reciprocated, equitable and differentiated. Bonds in macaque societies are based on the degreeof within-group contest competition for mates which is dependent on the synchronization of female fertilephase and reliability of fertility signals. Species of the Fascicularis group, including Nicobar subspecies, showintermediate reliability in the signals with mild peaks, and studies have shown reciprocity but no differentiation.We conducted a study on a group of wild Nicobar long-tailed macaques Macaca fascicularis umbrosusto understand the existing patterns of male-male relationships. We examined whether there is reciprocity inaffiliation among the individuals and whether the rate of affiliation is balanced. We also measured the dominancelinearity and steepness in the group to understand the monopolizability of females. We used socialnetwork analysis to understand whether the relations are differentiated based on hierarchical position andwhether the high-ranking individuals are the most central individuals in the distribution of grooming in thegroup. We found that there is reciprocity among the males although that is not equitable. There was no rank relateddifferentiation of affiliation among the males of the group. Instead, the identities of individualsinfluenced affiliation patterns. Our results correspond to the existent strong relationships but lack of social bondotherwise found in the Fascicularis group of macaques.

    • Author Affiliations

       

      PARTHA SARATHI MISHRA1 2 3 ARIJIT PAL1 4 AVADHOOT D VELANKAR1 4 HONNAVALLI N KUMARA1 MEWA SINGH3

      1. Sa´lim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, Coimbatore 641 108, India
      2. Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046, India
      3. Biopsychology Laboratory and Institution of Excellence, University of Mysore, Mysuru 570 006, India
      4. Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal 576 104, India
    • Dates

       
  • Journal of Biosciences | News

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