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    • Keywords

       

      Defense; Pseudomonas putida; rice; root exudation; salicylic acid; secondary metabolism

    • Abstract

       

      Pseudomonas putida is widely used as a biocontrol agent, however, mechanisms by which it initiates the plants’ defenseresponse remains obscure. To gain an insight into the molecular changes that occur in plants upon plant growth-promotingrhizobacteria colonization, root transcriptome analysis by using a microarray was performed in rice using P. putida RRF3 (arice rhizosphere isolate). Data analysis revealed a differential regulation of 61 transcripts (48 h post-treatment), of which,majority corresponded to defense response, cell wall modification and secondary metabolism. Seven genes encodingsalicylic acid (SA) responsive pathogenesis-related proteins were up-regulated significantly (fold change ranges from 1 to4), which suggests that RRF3 has a profound impact on a SA-mediated defense signaling mechanism in rice. Investigationsperformed at later stages of RRF3 colonization by real-time polymerase chain reaction and high-performance liquidchromatography (HPLC) analysis confirmed the above results, demonstrating RRF3 as a potent biocontrol agent. Further,the impact of RRF3 colonization on root exudation, in particular, exudation of SA was investigated by HPLC. However,analysis revealed RRF3 to have a negative impact on root exudation of SA. Overall, this study shows that P. putida RRF3immunizes the rice plants by re-organizing the root transcriptome to stimulate plant defense responses (‘priming’), andsimultaneously protects itself from the primed plants by altering the rhizosphere chemical constituents.

    • Author Affiliations

       

      REKHA KANDASWAMY1 2 MOHAN KUMAR RAMASAMY3 RAMESHTHANGAM PALANIVEL4 USHA BALASUNDARAM2

      1. Present Address: Department of Chemical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
      2. Department of Genetic Engineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu 603 203, India
      3. Interdisciplinary Institute of Indian System of Medicine (IIISM), SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu 603 203, India
      4. Department of Biotechnology, Science Campus, Alagappa University, KaraikudiSivagangai District, Tamil Nadu 630 004, India
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