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    • Keywords

       

      F-techniques; fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching (FRAP); fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS); fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS); Fo¨ rster resonance energy transfer (FRET)

    • Abstract

       

      Advanced fluorescence techniques, commonly known as the F-techniques, measure the kinetics and the interactions ofbiomolecules with high sensitivity and spatiotemporal resolution. Applications of the F-techniques, which were initiallylimited to cells, were further extended to study in vivo protein organization and dynamics in whole organisms. The integrationof F-techniques with multi-photon microscopy and light-sheet microscopy widened their applications in the field of developmentalbiology. It became possible to penetrate the thick tissues of living organisms and obtain good signal-to-noise ratiowith reduced photo-induced toxicity. In this review, we discuss the principle and the applications of the three most commonlyused F-techniques in developmental biology: Fluorescence Recovery After Photo-bleaching (FRAP), Fo¨ rster ResonanceEnergy Transfer (FRET), and Fluorescence Correlation and Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS and FCCS).

    • Author Affiliations

       

      SAPTHASWARAN VEERAPATHIRAN1 THORSTEN WOHLAND1 2

      1. Department of Biological Sciences and NUS Centre for Bio-Imaging Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117557, Singapore
      2. Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543, Singapore
    • Dates

       
  • Journal of Biosciences | News

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