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    • Keywords


      F-techniques; fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching (FRAP); fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS); fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS); Fo¨ rster resonance energy transfer (FRET)

    • Abstract


      Advanced fluorescence techniques, commonly known as the F-techniques, measure the kinetics and the interactions ofbiomolecules with high sensitivity and spatiotemporal resolution. Applications of the F-techniques, which were initiallylimited to cells, were further extended to study in vivo protein organization and dynamics in whole organisms. The integrationof F-techniques with multi-photon microscopy and light-sheet microscopy widened their applications in the field of developmentalbiology. It became possible to penetrate the thick tissues of living organisms and obtain good signal-to-noise ratiowith reduced photo-induced toxicity. In this review, we discuss the principle and the applications of the three most commonlyused F-techniques in developmental biology: Fluorescence Recovery After Photo-bleaching (FRAP), Fo¨ rster ResonanceEnergy Transfer (FRET), and Fluorescence Correlation and Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS and FCCS).

    • Author Affiliations



      1. Department of Biological Sciences and NUS Centre for Bio-Imaging Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117557, Singapore
      2. Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543, Singapore
    • Dates

  • Journal of Biosciences | News

      Forthcoming Special issue.

    • To trigger further research on plant mitochondria, the Journal of Biosciences is bringing out a special issue titled "Plant Mitochondria: Properties and Interactions with Other Organelles".

      Plant mitochondria are quite distinct and have unique features, such as a cyanide-insensitive alternate pathway. They also interact with chloroplasts to optimize photosynthetic carbon assimilation.

      Submissions are welcome until 30 July 2023. The contributions can be original articles, short communications, reviews, or mini-reviews on any topic related to plant mitochondria.

      Authors can submit their articles online at https://www.editorialmanager.com/jbsc/default2.aspx

      Posted on April 12, 2023
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      Posted on July 25, 2019

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