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    • Keywords


      Crabtree effect; escape from apoptosis; Kluyveromyces lactis; p53 in yeast; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Warburg effect

    • Abstract


      Tumour cells distinguish from normal cells by fermenting glucose to lactate in presence of sufficient oxygen and functionalmitochondria (Warburg effect). Crabtree effect was invoked to explain the biochemical basis of Warburg effect by suggestingthat excess glucose suppresses mitochondrial respiration. It is known that the Warburg effect and Crabtree effect aredisplayed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, during growth on abundant glucose. Beyond this similarity, it was also demonstratedthat expression of human pro-apoptotic proteins in S. cerevisiae such as Bax and p53 caused apoptosis. Here, wedemonstrate that p53 expression in S. cerevisiae (Crabtree-positive yeast) causes increase in ROS levels and apoptosis whencells are growing on non-fermentable carbon sources but not on fermentable carbon sources, a feature similar to tumourcells. In contrast, in Kluyveromyces lactis (Crabtree-negative yeast) p53 causes increase in ROS levels and apoptosisregardless of the carbon source. Interestingly, the increased ROS levels and apoptosis are correlated to increased oxygenuptake in both S. cerevisiae and K. lactis. Based on these results, we suggest that at least in yeast, fermentation per se doesnot prevent the escape from apoptosis. Rather, the Crabtree effect plays a crucial role in determining whether the cellsshould undergo apoptosis or not.

    • Author Affiliations



      1. Department of Transplant Immunology and Immunogenetics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110 029, India
      2. Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400 076, India
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