• The evolutionary strata of DARPP-32 tail implicates hierarchical functional expansion in higher vertebrates

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    • Keywords


      Conserved phosphorylation sites; DARPP-32; phylogenetics and synteny analyses; PP1 inhibitor

    • Abstract


      DARPP-32 (dopamine and adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa), which belongs to PPP1R1 gene family, is known to act as an important integrator in dopamine-mediated neurotransmission via the inhibition of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1). Besides its neuronal roles, this protein also behaves as a key player in pathological and pharmacological aspects. Use of bioinformatics and phylogenetics approaches to further characterize the molecular features of DARPP-32 can guide future works. Predicted phosphorylation sites on DARPP-32 show conservation across vertebrates. Phylogenetics analysis indicates evolutionary strata of phosphorylation site acquisition at the C-terminus, suggesting functional expansion of DARPP-32, where more diverse signalling cues may involve in regulating DARPP-32 in inhibiting PP1 activity. Moreover, both phylogenetics and synteny analyses suggest de novo origination of PPP1R1 gene family via chromosomal rearrangement and exonization.

    • Author Affiliations


      Choong Yong Ung1 Teow Chong Teoh1

      1. Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
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