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    • Keywords


      Agarose; cartilage; chondroprotective; in vitro models; osteoarthritis; Raloxifene

    • Abstract


      The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Raloxifene (Ral) on degeneration-related changes in osteoarthritis (OA)-like chondrocytes using two- and three-dimensional models. Five-azacytidine (Aza-C) was used to induce OA-like alterations in rat articular chondrocytes and the model was verified at molecular and macrolevels. Chondrocytes were treated with Ral (1, 5 and 10 𝜇M) for 10 days. Caspase-3 activity, gene expressions of aggrecan, collagen II, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), collagen X, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-13, MMP-3 and MMP-2), and MMP-13, MMP-3 and MMP-2 protein expressions were studied in two-dimensional model. Matrix deposition and mechanical properties of agarose-chondrocyte discs were evaluated in three-dimensional model. One 𝜇M Ral reduced expression of OA-related genes, decreased apoptosis, and MMP-13 and MMP-3 protein expressions. It also increased aggrecan and collagen II gene expressions relative to untreated OA-like chondrocytes. In three-dimensional model, 1 𝜇M Ral treatment resulted in increased collagen deposition and improved mechanical properties, although a significant increase for sGAG was not observed. In summation, 1 𝜇M Ral improved matrix-related activities, whereas dose increment reversed these effects except ALP gene expression and sGAG deposition. These results provide evidence that low-dose Ral has the potential to cease or reduce the matrix degeneration in OA.

    • Author Affiliations


      Aysegul Kavas1 Seda Tuncay Cagatay2 Sreeparna Banerjee2 3 Dilek Keskin1 3 4 Aysen Tezcaner1 3 4

      1. Department of Engineering Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800, Turkey
      2. Department of Biological Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800, Turkey
      3. Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800, Turkey
      4. BIOMATEN, Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800, Turkey
    • Dates

  • Journal of Biosciences | News

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      Posted on July 25, 2019

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