Nanovaccines: recent developments in vaccination
In the past 100 years, vaccination has contributed immensely to public health by preventing a number of infectious diseases. Attenuated, killed or part of the microorganism is employed to stimulate the immune system against it. Progress in biotechnology has provided protective immunity through DNA vaccines. In recent years, nanovaccine is a novel approach to the methodology of vaccination. Nanomaterials are delivered in the form of microspheres, nanobeads or micro-nanoprojections. Painless, effective and safe needle-free routes such as the intranasal or the oral route, or patches of microprojections to the skin are some of the approaches which are in the experimental stage at present but may have a great future ahead in nanovaccination.