Bioefficacy and mode-of-action of some limonoids of salannin group fromAzadirachta indica A. Juss and their role in a multicomponent system against lepidopteran larvae
Biological activities of the salannin type of limonoids isolated fromAzadirachta indica A. Juss were assessed using the gram pod borerHelicoverpa armigera (Hubner) and the tobacco armywormSpodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Inhibition of larval growth was concomitant with reduced feeding by neonate and third instar larvae. All three compounds exhibited strong antifeedant activity in a choice leaf disc bioassay with 2.0, 2.3 and 2.8 (μ/cm2 of 3-O-acetyl salannol, salannol and salannin, respectively deterring feeding by 50% inS. litura larvae. In nutritional assays, all three comounds reduced growth and consumption when fed to larvae without any effect on efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), suggesting antifeedant activity alone. No toxicity was observed nor was there any significant affect on nutritional indices following topical application, further suggesting specific action as feeding deterrents. When relative growth rates were plotted against relative consumption rates, growth efficiency of theH. armigera fed diet containing 3-O-acetyl salannol, salannol or salannin did not differ from that of starved control larvae (used as calibration curve), further confirming the specific antifeedant action of salannin type of limonoids. Where the three compounds were co-administered, no enhancement in activity was observed. Non-azadirachtin limonoids having structural similarities and explicitly similar modes of action, like feeding deterrence in the present case, have no potentiating effect in any combination.
Volume 45, 2020
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