• Fulltext


        Click here to view fulltext PDF

      Permanent link:

    • Keywords


      Acetylcholine; GABA; locus coeruleus; norepinephrine; REM sleep generation; REM sleep function

    • Abstract


      Sleep and wakefulness are instinctive behaviours that are present across the animal species. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a unique biological phenomenon expressed during sleep. It evolved about 300 million years ago and is noticed in the more evolved animal species. Although it has been objectively identified in its present characteristic form about half a century ago, the mechanics of how REM is generated, and what happens upon its loss are not known. Nevertheless, extensive research has shown that norepinephrine plays a crucial role in its regulation. The present knowledge that has been reviewed in this manuscript suggests that neurons in the brain stem are responsible for controlling this state and presence of excess norepinephrine in the brain does not allow its generation. Furthermore, REM sleep loss increases levels of norepinephrine in the brain that affects several factors including an increase in Na-K ATPase activity. It has been argued that such increased norepinephrine is ultimately responsible for REM sleep deprivation, associated disturbances in at least some of the physiological conditions leading to alteration in behavioural expression and settling into pathological conditions.

    • Author Affiliations


      Birendra N Mallick1 Sudipta Majumdar1 Mohd Faisal1 Vikas Yadav1 Vibha Madan1 Dinesh Pal1

      1. School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi - 110 067, India
    • Dates

  • Journal of Biosciences | News

    • Editorial Note on Continuous Article Publication

      Posted on July 25, 2019

      Click here for Editorial Note on CAP Mode

© 2021-2022 Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru.