• Origins of gene, genetic code, protein and life: comprehensive view of life systems from a GNC-SNS primitive genetic code hypothesis

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    • Keywords


      GNC-SNS primitive genetic code hypothesis; origin of genes; origin of genetic code; origin of life; origin of proteins

    • Abstract


      We have investigated the origin of genes, the genetic code, proteins and life using six indices (hydropathy, α-helix, β-sheet and β-turn formabilities, acidic amino acid content and basic amino acid content) necessary for appropriate three-dimensional structure formation of globular proteins. From the analysis of microbial genes, we have concluded that newly-born genes are products of nonstop frames (NSF) on antisense strands of microbial GC-rich genes [GC-NSF(a)] and from SNS repeating sequences [(SNS)n] similar to the GC-NSF(a) (S and N mean G or C and either of four bases, respectively). We have also proposed that the universal genetic code used by most organisms on the earth presently could be derived from a GNC-SNS primitive genetic code. We have further presented the [GADV]-protein world hypothesis of the origin of life as well as a hypothesis of protein production, suggesting that proteins were originally produced by random peptide formation of amino acids restricted in specific amino acid compositions termed as GNC-, SNS and GC-NSF(a)-0th order structures of proteins. The [GADV]-protein world hypothesis is primarily derived from the GNC-primitive genetic code hypothesis. It is also expected that basic properties of extant genes and proteins could be revealed by considerations based on the scenario with four stages

    • Author Affiliations


      K Ikehara1

      1. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Nara Women’s University, Kita-uoya-nishi-machi, Nara, Nara - 630-8506, Japan
    • Dates

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