Vitamin A has manifold effects on the development, growth and pattern formation of several amphibians. At the same time it causes severe embryonic malformations. The histological changes brought about by vitamin A in the tail tissues of anurans are quite amazing. A common morphological change brought about by vitamin A in tail-amputated tadpoles ofBufo melanostictus include the formation of a large bulbular mass at the distal end of the tail following tail regeneration. Histology revealed that the bulbular mass consisted of notochordal cells only. Other histological changes are: a thickening of the epidermis and the basement membrane, enlargement of the notochord and the nerve cord, thickening of the sheath covering the notochord and the myelin sheath covering the nerve cord and the disorganization of muscle bundles. The significance of such changes is discussed.