We have examined the monthly variations in sperm output and attempted to correlate the profiles of endocrine hormones secreted with the sperm counts throughout the year in the adult male bonnet monkey. As previously reported, there was a distinct spurt in sperm output beginning September through December months. A concomitant increase in serum testosterone and prolactin concentrations were also noted during September through November (mid and post-monsoon season). Although there was a marked increase in gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulated testosterone secretion, the peak testosterone concentrations post gonadotropin releasing hormone injection did not vary significantly (P > 0.05) throughout the year. Basal serum follicle stimulating hormone concentrations did not vary significantly (P > 0.05) during April to June months compared to September-November months. Serum inhibin concentration remained unaltered throughout the year, except in the month of March. The results of this study provide evidence for annual rhythms in prolactin and testosterone secretion and a distinct seasonality in the sperm output of the adult male bonnet monkey, but the pituitary responsiveness to exogenous gonadotropin releasing hormone remains unaltered throughout the year. Because of the existence of seasonality as noted in the present study, future studies which utilize the adult male bonnet monkey as an experimental model need to take into consideration the seasonal effects on reproductive function in this species.