A DNA synthesis inhibitor protein was purified from the conditioned medium of cycloheximide treated mouse embryo fibroblasts. This protein has a molecular weight of 45,000 as determined by gel filtration and Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The levels of the [35S] methionine la belled 45 kDa protein in the medium and matrix were monitored across two cell cycles in synchronized cultures. The 45 kDa protein was present in higher levels in the medium of non-S-phase cells depicting a peak between the two S-phases. The DNA synthesis inhibitor protein was immunologically related to a chicken DNA-binding protein which showed similar cell cycle specific variations at the intracellular level. The purified 45 kDa protein inhibited DNA synthesis in murine and human cells. In mouse embryo fibroblasts, the DNA synthesis was inhibited to an extent of 86% by 0.25 μg/ml of the inhibitor, while higher amounts of the inhibitor were required to arrest DNA synthesis in human skin fibroblasts: in these cells, 4 μg/ml of the inhibitor inhibited DNA synthesis to an extent of 50%. The high levels of the 45 kDa protein in the medium of non-S phase cells and its DNA synthesis inhibitory potential suggest that this protein may be involved in the regulation of DNA synthesis during the cell cycle.