The effect of thyroidectomy (Tx) and subsequent treatment with triiodothy-ronine (T3) on rat kidney mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was examined. Thyroidectomy resulted in lowering of state 3 respiration rates and cytochrome contents. Thyroidectomized animals administered with T3 (20 Μg/100 g body wt) resulted in the nonsynchronous stimulation of state 3 respiration rates in kidney mitochondria with glutamate, Β-hydroxybutyrate, succinate and ascorbate+TMPD as substrates. Cytoch-rome contents were also elevated differentially. Increase in the state 4 respiration rates was transient and reversible. However, primary dehydrogenases were not generally altered in the Tx and T3-treated Tx animals. The results thus indicate that the T3treatment to-Tx animals brings about differential and nonsynchronous increase in the respiratory parameters and respiratory chain components of kidney mitochondria.