Biochemical characteristics of bi-resistant mutants (resistant to ethambutol plus streptomycin or isoniazid plus streptomycin) of mycobacteria isolated by replica plating fromMycobacterium smegmatis ATCC were compared with those of the drug-susceptible strains. Reduced incorporation of [14C]uracil, [3H]lysine and [14C]acetate into RNA, protein and phospholipids respectively was seen in the resistant mutants. Total phosphorlipids were enhanced in ethambutol plus streptomycin resistant mutant and decreased in isoniazid plus streptomycin resistant mutant. There were similar changes in levels of individual phospholipids. The resistant mutants revealed an accumulation of phospholipids in the cell wall, and a marked decrease of phospholipids in the cell membrane in comparison to the susceptible strain. Several qualitative alterations in the polypeptide profile (with respect to number and molecular weight) of the crude protein extract and of different subcellular compartments were seen in the resistant mutants.