Several molecules like ionophores, vitamins, ion-binding cyclic peptides, acidic phospholipids, surfactants are known to expose the inner side of vesicles, to the externally added cations. Whereas ionophores and certain other systems bring about these changes by a selective transport (influx) of the cation by specialized mechanisms known as the carrier and channel mechanism, other systems cause lysis and vesicle fusion. These systems have been successfully studied using1H,31 P and13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy after the demonstration, fifteen years ago, of the ability of paramagnetic lanthanide ions to distinguish the inside of the vesicle from the outside. The results of these ’nuclear magnetic resonance kinetics’ experiments are reviewed.
Volume 46, 2021
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