Role of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in the control of gonadotropin release: A review
Rapid progress has been recorded recently in the understanding of the role of neuro-transmitters and neuropeptides in the control of reproduction and on their apparent potential in the regulation of fertility. Peptides, as well as monoamines, are important in the control of lutinizing hormone releasing hormone and gonadotropin release. The input from brainstem noradrenergic neurons as well as dopamine mediated stimulated release of lutinizing hormone. In addition considerable evidence exist for the occurrence of a specific follicle stimulating hormone-releasing factor. A large number of brain peptides affect the secretion of lutinizing hormone releasing hormone and the endogenous opioid peptides appear to have a physiologically important function in restraining the influence on lutinizing hormone releasing hormone release under most circumstances. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and substanceP stimulate whereas cholecystokinin, neurotensin, gastrin, secretin, somatostatin α-melanosite stimulating hormone and vasotocin inhibit lutinizing hormone release. Of the inhibitory peptides, cholecystokinin and arg-vasotocin are the most potent. Inhibin injected into the ventricle selectively suppresses follicle stimulating hormone release by a hypothalamic action. Thus the control of gonadotropin release is complex and a number of aminergic and peptidergic transmitters are involved.