• Electrical, electronic and magnetic behaviours of F-doped SnO$_2$ thin film

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    • Keywords


      SnO$_2$; SnO$_2$:F thin films; XPS; UPS; conductivity; M–H hysteresis curve.

    • Abstract


      X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) study show that the SnO$_2$ and SnO$_2$:F are Sn$^{2+}$ dominated in the formation of SnO$_2$ structure. The SnO$_2$:F thin film is mainly the formation of metallic fluoride. The UPS study confirms the density of states of SnO$_2$:F is higher than SnO$_2$. The work function, valence band maximum and surface potentials of SnO$_2$ (SnO$_2$:F) are estimated from UPS spectra and are 3.9 eV (3.7 eV), 3.7 V (3.5 eV) and 7.6 eV (7.2 eV), respectively. Electrical conductivity and M–H hysteresis loop show SnO$_2$:F have higher conductivity as well as magnetization.

    • Author Affiliations



      1. Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Private Bag X6, Johannesburg 1710, South Africa
    • Dates

  • Bulletin of Materials Science | News

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