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      https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/boms/045/0103

    • Keywords

       

      Lead-acid battery; high-energy ball milling; exfoliated graphite; zinc oxide; lead oxide; composite.

    • Abstract

       

      In order to improve the electrical efficiency of lead-acid batteries under partial state of charge, three additives for the negative active mass were synthesized by high-energy ball milling: (1) exfoliated graphite doped with nitrogen groups (GN) from urea and novel (2) ZnO/GN and (3) PbO/GN. The main variables of grinding medium, ball sizes and time were studied. All additives were characterized on Raman, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy and pure, uniform composites of particle size${\le}$3 ${\mu}$m were demonstrably obtained. The optimized samples proceeded to electrochemical tests. Particularly, selected PbO/GN4-5 provided a 41% reduction in the current density for the H$_2$ evolution reaction at the working potential on linear sweep voltammetry tests. The produced additives indicated high charge efficiency on the formation process of a 2 V, 36 Ah lead-acid cell. Cycle life performances of cells containing 0.50% (vs. LO) of selected GN4, PbO/GN4-5 and ZnO/GN4-5 surpassed that of commercial graphite, in 75, 328 and 752%, respectively. As a result, the produced additives represent a progress in enhancing commercial additives. The effects of these additives were further investigated after the teardown of the cells. The negative plate was pointed out to be the limiting factor and there is evidence that the additives provided a more uniform distribution and reduced the size of the PbSO$_4$ crystals.

    • Author Affiliations

       

      E H YANASE1 C S INAGAKI2 L S ROMAN1 E P M DOS SANTOS2 J C PEREIRA2 G PANINI2 H R DE FREITAS2 M A C BERTON2

      1. Materials Science and Engineering Graduate Program, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR 81530 000, Brazil
      2. SENAI Innovation Institute for Electrochemistry (ISI-EQ), Curitiba, PR 80215 090, Brazil
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