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      https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/boms/045/0100

    • Keywords

       

      Morpholine; graphene; carbon nanotube; electro-oxidation.

    • Abstract

       

      Two electrochemical sensors based on modified glassy carbon electrodes with carbon nanostructures as graphene (GCE-EG) and carbon nanotubes (GCE–CNT) were evaluated for morpholine analysis. The carbon nanostructures were obtained and characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. All spectroscopic and microscopic techniques confirmed the procurement of graphene and CNT. The electrochemical studies proved the efficient behaviour of both electrodes GCE–EG and GCE–CNT in sensing and detection of morpholine via differential pulse voltammetry. The area of the anodic peaks was correlated with the concentration of the analyte. It was observed that the implementation of a thin film of EG and CNT on the GCE promoted the electrocatalytic activity towards morpholine electro-oxidation, and a considerable increase in the corresponding oxidation peak was observed in both cases. Theoretical detection limits of 1.0 and 1.3 mg l$^{–1}$ were obtained for GCE–EG and GCE–CNT, respectively. These merit figures, both satisfactorily meet the requirements of the Food and Drug Administration for morpholine detection in real applications. Finally, the sample recovery for GCE–EG and GCE–CNT sensors were, respectively, 107 and 103%, at 20.0 mg l$^{–1}$ morpholine in the boiler water.

    • Author Affiliations

       

      SANAIR MASSAFRA DE OLIVEIRA1 2 KELLY LEITE DOS SANTOS CASTRO ASSIS1 2 VICTOR MAGNO PAIVA1 MAZDAK HASHEMPOUR3 4 MASSIMILIANO BESTETTI5 JOYCE R DE ARAÚJO2 ELIANE D’ELIA1

      1. Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, University City, Rio de Janeiro 21941-909, Brazil
      2. National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology, Duque de Caxias 25250-020, Brazil
      3. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, 14588-89694 Tehran, Iran
      4. Institute of Water and Energy, Sharif University of Technology, 11365-8639 Tehran, Iran
      5. Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering ‘Giulio Natta’, Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy
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