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    • Keywords

       

      Gd:BaTiO$_3$ solid solutions; microwave-assisted heat treatment; scanning transmission electron microscopy; computational simulation; electron energy loss spectroscopy; multifunctional features.

    • Abstract

       

      Herein, Gd-doped BaTiO$_3$ (Gd:BTO) solid-solution powders were prepared by microwave-assisted heat treatment (MWH). The structural and chemical characteristics of the powders were analysed by scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The defect formation reactions relevant to Gd doping are discussed based on the change in the electron energy structure as well as the density functional theory calculations. Ba(OH)$_2$.H$_2$O, TiO$_2$.4H$_2$O and Gd(NO$_3)_3$.6H$_2$O were used as Ba, Ti and Gd precursors, respectively. A Ba/Ti mole ratio of 1.2 in the precursor at a reaction temperature of 300°C was determined to be the optimal synthetic conditions for preparing the Gd:BTO solid solution. Gd evidently occupied the Ti sites (denoted as $Gd_{Ti}$) of BaTiO$_3$ structure, and the substitution of Ti with Gd was accompanied by a change in the oxidation state of the Ti ions and the generation of oxygen vacancies. The magnetic susceptibility of the Gd:BTO powders increased with increase in concentration of $Gd_{Ti}$ with unidirectional electron spins. In contrast, the relative dielectric constant varied inversely with the Gd concentration owing to the evolution of oxygen vacancies and lattice distortion of the Gd:BTO powders with the increase in the Gd concentration.

    • Author Affiliations

       

      HAN-SOL YUN1 JAE-HYEON SHIM2 YONG-SEON KIM1 SU-YEON KIM1 SO-YOUNG SHIN1 KWON-JIN PARK3 CHUN-YEOL YOU3 DAE-YONG JEONG1 NAM-HEE CHO1

      1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 22212, South Korea
      2. Department of Advanced Materials and Energy Engineering, Dongshin University, Naju 58245, South Korea
      3. Department of Emerging Materials Science, DGIST, Daegu 42988, South Korea
    • Dates

       
  • Bulletin of Materials Science | News

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