In this study, nanohydroxyapatite (NHA) was synthesized using calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and diammonium hydrogen phosphate via the precipitation method assisted with ultrasonication. Three independent process parameters: temperature (𝑇) (70, 80 and 90°C), ultrasonication time (𝑡) (20, 25 and 30 min), and amplitude (𝐴) (60, 65 and 70%) were studied and optimized using response surface methodology based on 3 factors and 5 level central composite design. The responses of the model were analysed with the help of the particle size measured from field-emission scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET). The surface area of particle was measured with BET and the thermal stability of the powder was measured using thermogravimetric analysis. Finally, with the optimized process parameters obtained from the model, the NHA powder was synthesised and validated against the predicted value. The results show a good agreement with an average error 8% between the actual and predicted values. Moreover, the thermal stability and porosity of synthesized NHA was further improved after calcination. This improvement could be due to the removal of impurities from the NHA powder after calcination as indicated by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.
Volume 43, 2020
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