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    • Keywords


      Nanohydroxyapatite; ultrasonication; response surface methodology; calcination; optimization.

    • Abstract


      In this study, nanohydroxyapatite (NHA) was synthesized using calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and diammonium hydrogen phosphate via the precipitation method assisted with ultrasonication. Three independent process parameters: temperature (𝑇) (70, 80 and 90°C), ultrasonication time (𝑡) (20, 25 and 30 min), and amplitude (𝐴) (60, 65 and 70%) were studied and optimized using response surface methodology based on 3 factors and 5 level central composite design. The responses of the model were analysed with the help of the particle size measured from field-emission scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET). The surface area of particle was measured with BET and the thermal stability of the powder was measured using thermogravimetric analysis. Finally, with the optimized process parameters obtained from the model, the NHA powder was synthesised and validated against the predicted value. The results show a good agreement with an average error 8% between the actual and predicted values. Moreover, the thermal stability and porosity of synthesized NHA was further improved after calcination. This improvement could be due to the removal of impurities from the NHA powder after calcination as indicated by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

    • Author Affiliations


      Feven Mattews Michael1 M Khalid1 C T Ratnam2 W Rashmi3 M E Hoque4 Mohammad Reza Ketabchi1

      1. Division of Manufacturing and Industrial Processes, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia
      2. Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
      3. Energy Research Group, School of Engineering, Taylor’s University, 47500 Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
      4. Department of Biomedical Engineering, King Faisal University Al-Hofuf, Al-Ahsa 31982, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
    • Dates

  • Bulletin of Materials Science | News

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      Prof. Surajit Dhara — School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad
      Physical Sciences 2020

    • Editorial Note on Continuous Article Publication

      Posted on July 25, 2019

      Click here for Editorial Note on CAP Mode

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