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    • Keywords


      Titania; TiO2–𝑥N𝑦 film; sol–gel method; Box–Behnken design.

    • Abstract


      TiO2–𝑥N𝑦 film has been synthesized successfully through the sol–gel method. It is found that the anatase phase is formed at 400 °C and converted to rutile phase at 600 °C. The response surface methodology (RSM) and Box–Behnken design were employed to optimize the process conditions of sol–gel process. Based on the results in preliminary experiments, we selected molar ratio of surfactant to Ti, molar ratio of acetylacetone to Ti, molar ratio of water to Ti and calcination temperature as the key process factors affecting the roughness of TiO2–𝑥N𝑦 film. The adjusted determination coefficient ($R^{2}_{\text{Adj}}$) of the regression model was 0.9651, which indicated that the regression model is significant. By analysing the contour plots of response surface as well as solving the regression model, the optimized conditions were obtained as: 0.19 for molar ratio of surfactant to Ti, 2.01 for molar ratio of acetylacetone to Ti, 1.38 for molar ratio of water to Ti and 500 °C for calcination temperature. The predicted roughness of TiO2–𝑥N𝑦 film for the optimized condition was calculated to be 41 nm. Confirmation experiments using the optimized conditions were performed, and a value about 43 nm was obtained. The experimental results are in good agreement with the predicted results.

    • Author Affiliations


      Rui Liu1 Ching-Shieh Hsieh2 Wein-Duo Yang3 Hui-Yi Tsai3

      1. Institute of Petroleum and Commodity, Harbin University of Commerce, Harbin 150076, China
      2. Department of Applied Chemistry, Fooyin University, Ta-Liao 831, Taiwan
      3. Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
    • Dates

  • Bulletin of Materials Science | News

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