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    • Keywords


      Natural hydroxyapatite; simulated body fluid; incubation; biomaterial; pH changes; rotary calcining kiln; chamber oven.

    • Abstract


      The paper presents in vitro (in SBF) behaviour of hydroxyapatite (HAp) obtained from pork bone sludge from meat plant via two essentially different calcination methods using a stationary, electrically heated chamber oven and enlarged laboratory scale rotary kiln designed by the authors, heated by gas combustion methods enabling application of different set of physical parameters such as temperature, holding time-differing according to type of the kiln. HAp ceramic discs, after 62-days of incubation in SBF at 37 °C, characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR, SEM and EDS methods, underwent changes recorded by:

      1. a reduction in Ca/P molar ratio in all the investigated materials resulting from modification in phase composition and

      2. weight increase in the investigated disc-samples, resulting from a precipitation of newly formed phase as an admixture of primary HPO$^{2-}_{4}$-free HAp.

      They were: secondary (with HPO$^{2-}_{4}$ incorporated) HAp and chlorapatite in all the samples, while in addition to the listed above, 𝛽-tricalcium phosphate was formed on the discs made of HAp from stationary chamber oven, but not from rotary kiln. The new phases were formed in agglomerates on the surface of the investigated ceramic discs and in their pores. The results obtained proved that calcination conditions of pork bone sludge (temperature 750–950 °C, time and type of the applied kiln) under which hydroxyapatite (HAp) powders were obtained had an impact on its different behaviour in SBF, nevertheless, indicating a potential ability of the material to form a new biologically relevant interface with hard tissue and suitability for further investigations intended for medical grafting.

    • Author Affiliations


      Agnieszka Sobczak-Kupiec1 Zbigniew Wzorek1 Regina Kijkowska2 Zygmunt Kowalski1

      1. Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and Technology, Cracow University of Technology, Warszawska 24, 31-155 Kraków, Poland
      2. The Alfred Meissner Higher School of Dental Engineering and Humanities, Sloneczna 2, 43-450 Ustron, Poland
    • Dates

  • Bulletin of Materials Science | News

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