Alloy design criteria to produce ductile phosphoric irons have been proposed based on a detailed microstructural study of ancient Indian irons. The alloy design aims at avoiding phosphorus segregation to the grain boundaries by
soaking the phosphoric iron at high temperatures within the ferrite + austenite region to precipitate austenite allotriomorphs,
utilizing a critical amount of carbon to segregate to grain boundaries, and
precipitation of some of the phosphorus in solid solution in the ferrite matrix as fine coherent phosphide precipitates.
Volume 43, 2020
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