• Female accessory glands and sperm reception in Tingidae (Heteroptera)

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    • Keywords


      Tingidae; accessory glands; intromittent organ; sperm reception; origin; evolution

    • Abstract


      Studies on the anatomy of the female internal organs of reproduction and the intromittent organs of 34 species of Tingidae confirm the absence of spermathecae. The accessory glands are vesicular and primitively unpaired. There is no vermiform gland and the term pseudosperrnatheca, introduced by Carayon in heteropteran literature, is a misnomer. The lateral oviduct and all the 7 pedicels of each ovary develop a permanent swelling in the middle that receive the spermatozoa, syringed into them through the minute pores of the armature of ejaculatory pouches of the endotheca, when it is lodged inside the bursa during copulation. The ejaculatory pouch and the bursa are so designed and adjusted for the purpose of sperm transmission. In a few species of Tingidae a median diverticulum that arises from the endotheca plugs the unpaired vesicular accessory gland, preventing wrongful lodging of the ejaculatory pouch and such a mechanism, not known so far, has been described as a unique feature. A scheme to trace the evolution of accessory gland, from a median unpaired contacaderine condition, to a paired independent gland, having its opening either in front or behind the lateral oviduct, has been detailed.

    • Author Affiliations


      David Livingstone1 M H S Yacoob1

      1. Division of Entomology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore - 641 046, India
    • Dates


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