• Biosystematics of Tingidae on the basis of the biology and micromorphology of their eggs

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    • Keywords


      Tingidae; oviposition strategies; opercular diversities; evolutionary trend; biosystematics

    • Abstract


      The biology and micromorphology of the eggs of 40 species belonging to 26 genera and two subfamilies of Tingidae from southern India have been studied and considered for an assessment of their biosystematics. The oviposition strategy is intimately correlated with the selection of oviposition site on the host plant, determined by the shape and size of the egg and accomplished by appropriately developed ovipositing mechanism involving the structural features of the first gonapophyses. The oviposition pattern is accordingly classified and the eggs are classified on the basis of the nature of development of the chorionic collar cum opercular apparatus. Characterization of the eggs and assessment of their systematic importance have been linked with the origin and evolution of adaptive radiation of oviposition strategies of their egg parasitoids as well. Production of season oriented dimorphic eggs is common among species that oviposit their long operculate eggs vertically in clusters, either into stems or rachis or pistil. Lamina ovipositors preferentially oviposit into the mesophyll horizontally, without cluster formation, on the undersurface of the leaves and the significant reduction in the number of aeropyles of such oval, short operculate eggs could be correlated with the abundance of oxygen supply of the ambient air. More elongate, long operculate eggs in Tingidae, characterized by their multiplicity of aeropyles and vertical oviposition in clusters into stems, rachis and pistil, signify primitiveness, as observed in Cantacaderinae and some large sized Tinginae. Micropyles are absent in tingid eggs, as fertilization occurs before chorion formation and a true spermatheca is wanting.

    • Author Affiliations


      David Livingstone1 M H S Yacoob1

      1. Division of Entomology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore - 641 046, India
    • Dates


© 2021-2022 Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru.