That certain species of wasps developing inside the wild variety of figs are responsible for the setting and ripening of the fruits (caprification) of the cultivated variety of figs of the same species (Ficus carica L) is well known. Besides each species ofFicus having its specific agaonid pollinator and a close mutualistic symbiosis, several adaptive modifications in the agaonids andFicus species appear significant in the course of evolution of this relationship. Recent studies on the pollination ethology of the agaonids have shown that besides the passive mode of pollen transfer (topocentric pollination) an active and deliberate type of pollen transfer (ethodynamic pollination) exists, which is associated with the development of specialised structures like the mesothoracic pollen pockets and the fore coxal corbiculae. The ecophysiological changes in the interior of the ripening fig syconia also play an important role in pollination during the post-emergence behaviour of the males and females in some agaonids. Further lines of work in the fascinating area of fig-wasp research are indicated.