Although 120 diseases of fungal, viral, mycoplasma and bacterial origin have been reported in sugarcane, insect vector associations have been established with virus/mycoplasma diseases only. Thirteen species of aphids have been identified to be vectors of mosaic and another bug,Assamia moesta Westw. is associated as a mechanical carrier. Three species ofPerkinsiella transmit Fiji disease. The leaf hopper,Cicadulina mbila (Naude) transmits streak. The mycoplasma diseases, white leaf and grassy shoot are carried over byMatsumaratettix sp. andA. moesta, respectively. A mealy bug has been reported to be a vector of spike disease. The future lines of approach for insect vector associations are also discussed.