The active substance, cecidogen secreted from the saliva of gall midge larva and the larval feeding on the meristematic tissue of terminal and auxiliary shoot apices in rice plant are responsible for gall formation (silver-shoot) in rice. Gall midge occurs in many of the rice growing areas and causes considerable yield loss even up to 70% in kharif crop. Many resistant varieties are being cultivated but the occurrence of biotypic variation of the insect limits their extensive use. Integrating chemical and genetic resistance appeared feasible to check the pest. Seasonal occurrence, host variation, resistance mechanism, biological, cultural and chemical control methods are reviewed and future lines of research on this important pest have also been discussed.