Drosophila collections made using traps baited with fermenting bananas from Nagarhole (Western Ghats) yielded a total of 15 species including a new species,Drosophila nagarholensis. Majority of theDrosophila trapped belonged either to themelanogaster orimmigrans species groups of the subgeneraSophophora andDrosophila respectively. The sympatric association and ecological dominance of the members of the two species groups are discussed. The external morphology and internal structures of the new species are described. Its taxonomic status and relationships are presented.