|Charge densities and charge noise in
mesoscopic conductors M
Department of Theoretical
Physics, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
Abstract.We introduce a hierarchy of density of states to characterize the charge distribution in a mesoscopic conductor. At the bottom of this hierarchy are the partial density of states which represent the contribution to the local density of states if both the incident and the out-going scattering channel is prescribed. The partial density of states play a prominent role in measurements with a scanning tunneling microscope on multiprobe conductors in the presence of current flow. The partial density of states determine the degree of dephasing generated by a weakly coupled voltage probe. In addition the partial density of states determine the frequency-dependent response of mesoscopic conductors in the presence of slowly oscillating voltages applied to the contacts of the sample. The partial density of states permit the formulation of a Friedel sum rule which can be applied locally. We introduce the off-diagonal elements of the partial density of states matrix to describe charge fluctuation processes. This generalization leads to a local Wigner--Smith life-time matrix.
Keywords: Density of states; injectivity; emissivity; voltage probe; inelastic scattering; absorption and emission; Bardeen formula; Friedel sum rule; mesoscopic electron transport.
Pacs Nos. 73.20.At; 61.16.Ch; 72.70.+m; 73.23.-b
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