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      Volume 42, Issue 8

      August 2017,   pages  1225-1429

    • Foreword

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      This special issue of Sadhana is a compilation of papers selected from those presented at the 7th National Power Electronics Conference (NPEC), held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, on 21–23 December 2015. From among the papers presented in NPEC-2017, selected papers were peer-reviewed for possible publication, and 18 papers were chosen for inclusion in this issue.

    • Switched-boost action: a phenomenon for achieving time-divisionmultiplexed multi-port power transfer for nanogrid applications


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      Multi-port power converter topologies are used to interface multiple terminals (source or load) using a single converter topology. In this paper, the possibility of using switch node of a power converter stage as interface to multiple output stages has been investigated. This interfacing of multiple outputs at the sameswitch node occurs using time-division multiplexing of the available input power. The multiplexing of input power into different ports occurs using a phenomenon that is denoted as ‘switched-boost action’ in the work and this concept has been illustrated using the boost converter topology. The proposed approach has been used to interface the boost-derived architectures to different types of outputs—ac, dc and isolated dc. The circuit operation has been validated using experimental results. These circuits have been proposed as possible candidates for nanogrid applications

    • Transition between grid-connected mode and islanded mode in VSI-fed microgrids


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      This paper investigates the behaviour of a microgrid system during transition between grid-connected mode and islanded mode of operation. During the grid-connected mode the microgrid sources will be controlled to provide constant real and reactive power injection. During the islanded mode the sources will be controlled to provide constant voltage and frequency operation. Special control schemes are needed to ensure proper transition from constant P–Q mode to constant f–V mode and vice versa. Transition from one mode to other will introduce severe transients in the system. Two kinds of transition schemes based on the status of the off-line controller are discussed and a comparative study is presented for various step changes in the load. An additional-pole-placement-based output feedback controller augmentation during transition between the modes is proposed to reduce the transients. A static output feedback compensator design is proposed for the grid connected to island mode transition and a dynamic output feedback compensator design is proposed for resynchronisation. The performance of the output feedback controllers is tested under various operating conditions and found to be satisfactory for the tested conditions.

    • Pre-charging of module capacitors of MMC when the module switches are driven by a source derived from the module capacitor


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      A modular multilevel converter (MMC) is one of the latest multilevel converters used for high and medium-voltage power conversion. It is based on cascade connection of multiple identical modules using IGBTs as switching devices. Module switches of MMC are preferably driven by a source derived from the modulecapacitor. In each MMC module, the control circuit, consisting of gate drivers, is powered from a dc supply derived from the local capacitor. The module capacitors need to be pre-charged, to power the control circuit. The problem faced while doing so experimentally for MMC with two modules per arm and a solution have been reported earlier. If a fly-back converter is used to generate the power supply for driving the control circuit, the module capacitor voltages become unstable during uncontrolled pre-charging. It has been reported earlier that the reason for this is approximately constant power load on the module capacitor. This work provides theoretical understanding of the problem and shows by analysis that the power supply can be made stable if the load on the module capacitor is made a positive resistance load. As the complexity of MMC with more than two modulesper arm is higher, the phenomenon is studied by simulation for MMC with four modules per arm. It shows that when a fly-back converter is used for generating the power supply, similar instability occurs in MMC with four modules per arm. It shows that when the module capacitor is made to have a load with positive resistance characteristics, the module capacitor voltages and consequently the power supplies stabilize even for MMC with four modules per arm. It further shows that even if the load on the module capacitor is negative resistance type, when fly-back converter is used to generate the module power supply, by switching devices in those modules where power supply becomes available first, followed by sorting algorithm, stable power supplies can be developed on all the modules and the capacitors can be fully charged to the desired voltage.

    • Theoretical prediction and experimental verification of light-load instability in a 11-kW open-loop induction motor drive


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      This paper presents the small-signal stability analysis of an 11-kW open-loop inverter-fed induction motor drive, including the effect of inverter dead-time. The analysis is carried out using an improved smallsignal model of the drive that has been reported in literature recently, and is used to demonstrate small-signal instability in a higher-power-level motor. Through small-signal stability analysis, the region of oscillatory behaviour is identified on the voltage versus frequency plane (V–f plane), considering no-load. These predictions using the improved model are also compared against predictions of a standard model of an inverter-fed inductionmotor including dead-time effect. The oscillatory behaviour of the 11-kW motor drive is also studied through extensive time-domain numerical simulations and actual measurements over wide ranges of operating conditions. Both the simulation and experimental results confirm the validity of the predictions by the improved analytical model. Further, these results establish that the analysis is valid for both sine-triangle pulse-width modulation (PWM) and conventional space vector PWM

    • Single-current-sensor-based active front-end-converter-fed four quadrants induction motor drive


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      Induction motor (IM) is a workhorse of the industry, whose dynamics can be modified close to that of a separately excited DC machine by field-oriented control technique, which is commonly known as vector control of induction machine. This paper presents a complete performance of the field-oriented control of IM drive in all four quadrants with a single-current-sensor-based active front end converter whose work is to regulate DC link voltage, draw pure sinusoidal currents at unity power factor and to facilitate bi-directional power flow between the grid and the drive. The entire system is completely modelled in MATLAB/SIMULINK and the results are discussed in detail. The vector control analogy of the back to back converters is highlighted along with the experimental results of field-oriented control of induction machine using a dsPIC30F6010A digital signal controller.

    • Experimental determination of mechanical parameters in sensorless vector-controlled induction motor drive


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      High-performance industrial drives widely employ induction motors with position sensorless vector control (SLVC). The state-of-the-art SLVC is first reviewed in this paper. An improved design procedure for current and flux controllers is proposed for SLVC drives when the inverter delay is significant. The speed controller design in such a drive is highly sensitive to the mechanical parameters of the induction motor. These mechanical parameters change with the load coupled. This paper proposes a method to experimentally determine the moment of inertia and mechanical time constant of the induction motor drive along with the load driven. The proposed method is based on acceleration and deceleration of the motor under constant torque, which is achieved using a sensorless vector-controlled drive itself. Experimental results from a 5-hp induction motor drive are presented.

    • Discontinuous conduction mode analysis of phase-modulated series resonant converter


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      This paper proposes an analytical approach to derive voltage gain for phase-modulated dc–dc series resonant converter (SRC) operating in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). The conventional fundamental harmonic approximation technique is extended for a non-ideal series resonant tank to clarify the limitations of SRC operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The DCM analysis is described in a normalized form defining appropriate base quantities. The converter is analysed both in time and frequency domain to derive a non-linear algebraic function of diode rectifier extinction angle. The root of this function is numericallydetermined using MATLAB and used to predict the dc bus voltage. Analytical derivation of critical load resistance is discussed, which indicates the CCM–DCM boundary condition. Experimental results are presented to validate the analysis

    • Multiple-load series resonant inverter for induction cooking application with pulse density modulation


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      Multiple-load induction cooking applications are suitable used when multi-output inverters or multi-inverters are needed for multiple-load operation. Some common approaches and modifications are needed in inverter configuration for multiple-load application. This paper presents an inverter configuration with two loads by using pulse density modulation control technique. It allows the output power control of each load independently with constant switching frequency and constant duty ratio. The pulse density modulation control technique is obtained using phase on–off control between two legs of the inverter to reduce acoustic noise. Thetwo-load three-leg inverter configuration provides reduction of the component count for extension of multiple loads. The control technique provides a wide range of output power control. In addition, it can achieve efficient and stable zero voltage switching operation in the whole load range. The proposed control scheme is simulated and experimentally verified with two-load inverter configuration.

    • Analysis, design and implementation of sensorless V/f control in a surface-mounted PMSM without damper winding


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      This paper presents a novel, reliable and efficient V/f control implementation on a 8-pole, 750 rpm, 5 kW surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) without damper winding. In the absence of a damper winding, open loop V/f control of SM is inherently unstable, particularly at high speeds. Stabilisationcan be done with proper stator frequency modulation in accordance with the change in rotor speed to provide for effect of damping. This has been implemented here without use of any shaft-mounted encoder. The change in rotor speed is observed from power perturbation, thereby eliminating the need for using a speed sensor in the drive. The efficiency of the drive is further increased with appropriate control of the power factor, irrespective of load and frequency variations. Simulated and experimental results are presented for both open loop and the proposed V/f control. These results establish the accuracy of the design of the proposed V/f control strategy and the precision of hardware implementation. A comparative study between the proposed V/f control method and standard vector control method, as implemented on this PMSM, has also been presented here to establish the advantages of the proposed scheme. The PMSM itself was designed and fabricated in the laboratory.

    • Design and implementation of an industrial vector-controlled induction motor drive


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      Vector-controlled induction motor drives are quite popular in the industry in applications that demand high dynamic performance. This paper describes the implementation of a complete industrial vector controlled drive for a 30 kW induction motor. The control algorithms for the drive are implemented using aTMS320F28335 Digital Signal Controller (DSC). Various monitoring and protection functions for the drive are implemented using a Cyclone IV FPGA that communicates with the DSC, and acts as the master controller for the drive. The FPGA also communicates with a Human–Machine Interface to provide a simple graphical control interface to the operator.

    • Battery impedance spectroscopy using bidirectional grid connected converter


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      Battery impedance can provide valuable insight into the condition of the battery. Commercially available impedance measurement instruments are expensive. Hence their direct use in a battery management system is not justifiable. In this work, a 3-kW bi-directional converter for charging and discharging a batterybank has been implemented with the capability of impedance measurement. The converter is grid connected and controlled to operate at unity power factor. Additional requirements on filter design and control structure of battery converter for impedance measurement are discussed. An algorithm has been developed to measure impedance by frequency sweep, avoiding transients. The measured impedance has been compared to that from a commercially available impedance measurement equipment and is shown to have a good match.

    • Auxiliary subsystems of a General-Purpose IGBT Stack for high-performance laboratory power converters


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      A PWM converter is the prime component in many power electronic applications such as static UPS, electric motor drives, power quality conditioners and renewable-energy-based power generation systems. While there are a number of computer simulation tools available today for studying power electronic systems,the value added by the experience of building a power converter and controlling it to function as desired is unparalleled. A student, in the process, not only understands power electronic concepts better, but also gains insights into other essential engineering aspects of auxiliary subsystems such as start-up, sensing, protection, circuit layout design, mechanical arrangement and system integration. Higher levels of protection features are critical for the converters used in a laboratory environment, as advanced protection schemes could prevent unanticipated failures occurring during the course of research. This paper presents a laboratory-built General-Purpose IGBT Stack (GPIS), which facilitates students to practically realize different power converter topologies. Essential subsystems for a complete power converter system is presented covering details of semiconductor device driving, sensing circuit, protection mechanism, system start-up, relaying and critical PCB layout design, followed by a brief comparison to commercially available IGBT stacks. The results show the high performance that can be obtained by the GPIS converter.

    • Design and control of single-phase dynamic voltage restorer


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      Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) is a custom power device used in electrical distribution system for power quality improvement. It ensures regulated voltage supply to the sensitive loads, even in case of voltage sag and swell disturbances in the distribution network. It is a series connected device and compensates voltagesag and swell by injecting a voltage with the help of a series transformer. The injection of an appropriate voltage component in the event of a voltage disturbance requires a certain amount of real and reactive power. Conventionally,DVR consists of an energy storage device, which supplies the required power over the limited duration of the sags. Large magnitude and long duration of sags lead to heavy financial investment in energy storage unit. To overcome this limitation, a single-phase back-to-back converter-based DVR is implemented inthis work, which eliminates energy storage requirement. The integration of series and shunt converter makes the DVR capable of bidirectional flow of energy. Therefore, the key advantage of this topology is its capability to compensate for long-term voltage sag and swell. Modelling of the DVR and its controller design is included in this paper. The effectiveness of control schemes, protection schemes and starting sequence of operation of DVR is verified through detailed simulation studies. A scaled down laboratory prototype of DVR is developed. The viability of these schemes is confirmed by the experimental results generated from the laboratory prototype. Various challenges faced during the prototype development and corresponding solutions are also discussed in this paper.

    • Impedance estimation of photovoltaic modules for inverter start-up analysis


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      Starting-up of photovoltaic (PV) inverters involves pre-charging of the input dc bus capacitance. Ideally, direct pre-charging of this capacitance from the PV modules is possible as the PV modules are current limited. Practically, the parasitic elements of the system such as the PV module capacitance, effective wire inductance and resistance determine the start-up transient. The start-up transient is also affected by the contactor connecting the PV modules to the inverter input dc bus. In this work, the start-up current and voltages are measured experimentally for different parallel and series connections of the PV modules. These measurements are used to estimate the stray elements, namely the PV module capacitance, effective inductance and resistance.The estimation is based on a linear small-signal model of the start-up conditions. The effect of different connections of the PV modules and the effect of varying irradiation on the scaling of the values of the stray elements are quantified. The System model is further refined by inclusion of connecting cable capacitance and contactor resistance. Dynamics of the resulting fifth-order model are seen to be consistent with those of the simplified third-order model. The analysis of this paper can be used to estimate the expected peak inrush current in PV inverters. It can also be used to arrive at a detailed modelling of PV modules to evaluate the transient behaviour.

    • A nine-level hybrid symmetric cascaded multilevel converter for induction motor drive


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      A nine-level hybrid symmetric cascaded multilevel converter (MLC) fed induction motor drive is proposed in this paper. The proposed converter is capable of producing nine output voltage levels by using the same number of power cells as that of conventional five-level symmetric cascaded H-bridge converter. Eachphase in this configuration consists of one five-level transistor-clamped H-Bridge (TCHB) power cell and one three-level H-bridge power cell with equal dc link voltages, and they are connected in cascade. Due to cascade connection and equal dc link voltage, the power shared by each power cell is nearly equal. Near-equal power sharing enables the feature of improving input current quality by using an appropriate phase-shifting multiwinding transformer at the converter input. In this paper, the operation of the converter is explained using staircase and hybrid multi-carrier sine PWM techniques. Further, a detailed analysis for the variations in the dc link capacitor voltages and the dc link mid-point voltage in TCHB power cell is carried out, and the analytical expressions thus obtained are presented. The performance of proposed system is analysed by simulating a 500 hp induction motor drive system in MATLAB/Simulink environment. A laboratory prototype is also developed to validate the claims experimentally.

    • Design and comparative study of discrete and module-based IGBT power converters


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      This paper discusses concepts of a 20 kVA power converter design and key differences between discrete IGBT and module-based design approaches. Module-based power converters have been typically employed in academic and research institutes for power levels of 10 kVA and more. However, with advancement in IGBT technologies and the growing need to minimize system size and weight, designs based on discrete devices are now an attractive alternative for such power levels. A simple procedure is presented for power converter design that includes power loss evaluation, heat-sink thermal characterization, thermal model of overall system and sizing of DC link capacitor. Using the same, a state-of-the-art discrete device and modulebased power converters are designed. A comparison is subsequently made, where it is shown that discrete approach yields a compact and economic design up to a power level of 20 kVA. A key objective of this work is to lay emphasis on laboratory design of power converters. This enables a graduate level student to build a converter from start and in the process gain insights into the underlying engineering design aspects.

    • Active power decoupling with reduced converter stress for single-phase power conversion and interfacing


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      Single-phase DC–AC power electronic converters suffer from pulsating power at double the line frequency. The commonest practice to handle the issue is to provide a huge electrolytic capacitor for smoothening out the ripple. However, the electrolytic capacitors having short end of lifetime limit the overall lifetime of the converter. Another way of handling the ripple power is by active power decoupling (APD) using the storage devices and a set of semiconductor switches. Here, a novel topology has been proposed in implementing APD. The topology claims the benefit of (1) reduced stress on converter switches and (2) using smaller capacitance value, thus alleviating the use of electrolytic capacitor and in turn improving the lifetime of the converter. The circuit consists of a third leg, a storage capacitor and a storage inductor. The analysis and the simulation results are shown to prove the effectiveness of the topology.

    • Design, analysis and fabrication of a linear permanent magnet synchronous machine


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      This paper deals with the design, analysis and fabrication of a 320 W, 5 m/s, 4-pole permanentmagnet-based linear synchronous machine (LPMSM). The design deals with conventional hand calculations followed by design fine-tuning and analysis using standard FEM packages. Fabrication of the machine has beenalso done at the works of a local small machine manufacturer after procurement of imported permanent magnets (PMs). The work presented here focuses on design and fabrication of LPMSM linor stampings with fixed dimensions and standard available PM tablets with a view to providing simple design guidelines. This prototype forms part of a variable speed linear motor drive that is being developed. The approach presented here might provide new ideas to those researchers who may not have the capability to bear cost of fabrication of lamination and PMs from scratch but would like to manufacture LPMSMs from available stampings and tablet PMs.Additionally, it may serve as a base document for the R&D personnel in this area.

© 2017 Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru.