The paper proposes a new optimization algorithm that is extremely robust in solving mathematical and engineering problems. The algorithm combines the deterministic nature of classical methods of optimization and global converging characteristics of meta-heuristic algorithms. Common traits of nature-inspired algorithms like randomness and tuning parameters (other than population size) are eliminated. The proposed algorithm is tested with mathematical benchmark functions and compared to other popular optimization algorithms. Theresults show that the proposed algorithm is superior in terms of robustness and problem solving capabilities to other algorithms. The paradigm is also applied to an engineering problem to prove its practicality. It is applied to find the optimal location of multi-type FACTS devices in a power system and tested in the IEEE 39 bus system and UPSEB 75 bus system. Results show better performance over other standard algorithms in terms of voltage stability, real power loss and sizing and cost of FACTS devices.
The sizing of the DC-link capacitor in a three-level inverter is based on the RMS current flowing through it. This paper analyses the DC-link capacitor RMS current in a neutral-point clamped (NPC) inverter and expresses the same as a function of modulation index, line-side current amplitude and power factor. Analytical closed-form expressions are derived for the capacitor RMS current for single-phase half-bridge,single-phase full-bridge and three-phase three-leg topologies of a three-level inverter. The worst-case capacitor current stress is determined for each topology based on the analytical expressions. Further, analytical expressions are derived for the RMS values of low-frequency and high-frequency capacitor currents. These expressions are then used to estimate voltage ripple across the DC capacitor for sinusoidally modulated three-phase NPC inverter. The analytical expressions for the RMS current and voltage ripple are validated experimentally over a wide range of operating points.
Wireless network sensors and their use in traffic monitoring, traffic density determination or vehicle speed detection and classification have recently been the focus of interest for researchers. This article describes how a new sensor circuit was designed to deliver instantaneous, real-time and novel solutions as a vehicle detection system, which is more powerful than the nodes used in other studies, and gives results with smaller error margins due to its serial communication qualification. With the proposed logic algorithm, it was possible tocategorise the instantaneous traffic status of a road in four levels: no traffic, mild traffic, heavy traffic and very heavy traffic. Additionally, with the nodes placed at the beginning and the end of the road, the number of vehicles per hour for a day was determined and traffic was analysed. Then, vehicles passing by were classified with a proposed classification algorithm and magnetic signature length (MSL) parameter as cars, minibuses, buses and trucks, and an accuracy rate of 95% was obtained. As the last application, the direction of motion ofthe vehicle on the x-axis as well as left-to-right or right-to-left directions was determined, and the result was 94% accurate. The simplicity of the proposed algorithms, the absence of any complex mathematical calculations, thelow cost of the sensor node and circuit and the low power consumption of the communication system demonstrate the superiority of this system in comparison with other studies.
Medical imaging is perturbed with inherent noise such as speckle noise in ultrasound, Poisson noise in X-ray and Rician noise in MRI imaging. This paper focuses on X-ray image denoising problem. X-ray image quality could be improved by increasing dose value; however, this may result in cell death or similar kinds of issues. Therefore, image processing techniques are developed to minimise noise instead of increasing dose value for patient safety. In this paper, usage of modified Harris corner point detector to predict noisy pixels and responsive median filtering in spatial domain is proposed. Experimentation proved that the proposed work performs better than simple median filter and moving average (MA) filter. The results are very close to non-local means Poisson noise filter which is one of the current state-of-the-art methods. Benefits of the proposed work are simple noise prediction mechanism, good visual quality and less execution time.
It is of utmost importance in a wireless body area network (WBAN) to improve the lifetimes of devices, while restricting latencies within allowable limits. These two demands are often conflicting, and a method to ensure fairly good values for these parameters with a view to satisfying the requirements of the WBAN application would be highly desirable. We consider CSMA/CA option of the medium access in 802.15.6 standard, and propose a sleep mechanism for the devices. An M/G/1 queue with repeated in homogeneous vacations model is used for the medium access in a typical WBAN network in hospital environments to see how the requirements of lifetimes and delays are taken care of. An analytical method for finding the probability generating function of the contention delay for medium access is developed first using Markovian techniques.The results obtained are then used in the queueing model. Comparison of theoretical values with simulations results shows a fairly close match and defines the conditions that affect the interplay of lifetimes and latencies
Induction heating (IH) converters operate just above resonant frequency, at near unity power factor (UPF), to supply power to the targeted work-piece. Some power electronic converter-fed IH systems use power control strategies based on dynamic tracking of the changing resonant frequency as the work-piece gets heated up (since inductance changes). Therefore, the correct in-process determination of the resonant frequency is essential. A method of dynamically detecting the resonant frequency is by calculating the phase-shift betweencurrent and voltage continuously during the process. In case of CSI- (and VSI-) fed IH, the phase-shift between voltage and current is zero at resonant frequency. Hence one way of identifying the resonant frequency is by varying the frequency until the phase-shift is zero. For controlling this phase-shift between current and voltage waveforms, most of the controllers use a phase-locked loop (PLL) IC. In this paper, a novel method for the dynamic tracking of resonant frequency is proposed and the practical implementation of the same, using a fieldprogrammable gate array (FPGA) based digital-PLL, is presented. The scheme is first simulated with generated off-line signal samples and then implemented on a real-time model of a CSI-fed IH application. Finally, thedigital-PLL logic is implemented on controller hardware and practically tested in a laboratory-made experimental set-up of 2 kW at a nominal frequency of 10 kHz. The switching frequency is auto-synchronising. This fact is practically verified both by varying (i) the geometric dimensions as also (ii) the initial temperature of the work-piece. It is practically observed in the oscillograms that the phase gets locked in few cycles (and hence ensures quick tracking of the dynamically changing resonant frequency for this set-up).
The aim of this work is to obtain the maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of controller-gain parameters K of the slave robot to determine the stochastic environment force. This is accomplished by measuring the joint positions of master and slave for a known master torque using stochastic difference equation.Here, the environmental force is modelled as a zero-mean white Gaussian random process. Therefore, the joint probability distribution function (pdf) of the slave angle over a given time duration can be computed as a function of the parameters ‘K’. This pdf is maximized with respect to ‘K’ to obtain the MLE of controller-gain parameters. Subsequently, convergence analysis of error in the estimates is performed. Also, an expression of the Cramer–Rao lower bound (CRLB) is derived to measure accuracy of the estimation. Comparison of CRLB with variance of MLE supports that our estimates are asymptotically efficient. The estimation performance is validated analytically and through simulations carried out on a two-link master–slave robotic system.
An analysis of the linear waves in infinitely-long square and triangular lattice strips of identical particles with nearest neighbour interactions for all combinations of fixed and free boundary conditions, as well as the periodic boundary, is presented. Expressions for the dispersion relations and the associated normal modes in these waveguides are provided in the paper; some of which are expressed implicitly in terms of certain linear combinations of the Chebyshev polynomials. The effect of next-nearest-neighbour interaction is also included for the square lattice waveguides. It is found that localized propagating waves, so called surface wave modes,occur in the triangular lattice strips, as well as square lattice strips with next-nearest-neighbour interactions,when either or both boundaries are free. In this paper, the even and odd modes are also discussed separately,wherever applicable. Graphical illustrations of the dispersion curves are included for all waveguides. The discrete waveguides analysed in the paper have broad applications in physics and engineering, including their merit in classical problems in elasticity, acoustics and electromagnetism, as well as recent technological issues involving various transport phenomena in quasi-one-dimensional nano-structures.
Estimation of the algal colonization growth on fac¸ade structure can provide useful information for the task of building maintenance. This research proposes a machine learning method based on the least squares support vector regression (LS-SVR) for modelling the growth time of the green alga Klebsormidium flaccidum on mortar surfaces. Furthermore, to identify an appropriate set of the LS-SVR hyper-parameters, the flower pollination algorithm (FPA) is employed as an optimization technique. The characteristics of the mortar samples, including surface roughness, porosity, surface pH, carbonated condition and type of cement, are employed as input factors for the analysing process. This study relies on a dataset that records 539 laboratory experiments to establish a hybrid model of the LS-SVR and the FPA. The cross-validation process reveals that the proposed method can successfully capture the functional relationship between the algal colonization growth and its influencing factors with a satisfactory outcome (the coefficient of determination R 2 = 0.94 and the root meansquare error RMSE = 4.55). These facts demonstrate that the hybrid model is a promising tool for assisting the decision-making process in building maintenance planning
Computations of incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer around a square obstacle with a near by adiabatic wall have been performed in a horizontal plane. The ranges of dimensionless control parameters considered are Prandtl number (Pr) = 10–100, Reynolds number (Re) = 1–150 and gap ratio (G) = 0.25–1.The steady-flow regime is observed up to Re = 121 for G = 0.5, and beyond this Re, time-periodic regime is observed. The shift to a time-periodic regime from a steady regime occurred at greater Re than that for an unconfined square obstacle. With increasing Pr, increase in average Nusselt number values is recorded for all Re and G studied. The heat transfer augmentation is approximately 1332% at Re = 150 (Pr = 100, G = 0.25) with regard to the corresponding values at Re = 1. Lastly, a correlation for jh factor is determined for the preceded conditions.
A first attempt is made for identifying the wake characteristics of circular cylinder confined by a wavy wall at laminar flow regime. Numerical study of flow characteristics past circular cylinder with wavy-wall confinement perpendicular to cylinder axis has been carried out in the range of Reynolds number 20–100. Thefinite volume-based CFD solver Ansys Fluent (Version 15.0) is used for computations. The results are presented in the form of streamline plots, mean drag co-efficient, flow separation angle and recirculation length. Wavywall confinement leads to highly significant changes in the cylinder wake such as the evolution of strong x-plane vortices, enhanced fluid mixing, wake suppression near the crest region and vortex stretching near the trough region on the downstream of the cylinder has been observed. Flow separation angle varies significantly along the axis of the cylinder. Increased wall shear stress on rear surface of the cylinder has also been observed. The part of vorticity magnitude as compared to strain rate has been distinguished and identified using vortex identification methods such as Q-criterion and Lambda-2 criterion.
Inconel 625 is one of the most versatile nickel-based super alloy used in the aerospace, automobile, chemical processing, oil refining, marine, waste treatment, pulp and paper, and power industries. Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is the process considered in the present text for machining of Inconel 625 as it can provide an effective solution for machining ultra-hard, high-strength and temperature-resistant materials and alloys, overcoming the constraints of the conventional processes. The present work is mainly focused on the analysis and optimization of the WEDM process parameters of Inconel 625. The four machining parameters, that is, pulse on time, pulse off time, spark gap voltage and wire feed have been varied to investigate their effects onthree output responses, such as cutting speed, gap current, and surface roughness. Response surface methodology was used to develop the experimental models. The parametric analysis-based results revealed that pulse on time and pulse off time were significant, spark gap voltage is the least significant, and wire feed as a single factor is insignificant. Multi-objective optimization technique was employed using desirability approach to obtain theoptimal parameters setting. Furthermore, surface topography in terms of machining parameters revealed that pulse on time and pulse off time significantly deteriorate the surface of the machined samples, which produce thedeeper, wider overlapping craters and globules of debris.
Saturated and unsaturated sand and soil column experiments were conducted to study the complex interaction between the effects of biological and hydrological factors on the transport of bacteria through a porous medium. These experiments were conducted with continuous input of bacteria and substrate at the inlet to reflect the groundwater contamination caused by leaking septic tanks and leach pits. Experiments were conducted with metabolically active and inactive Escherichia coli. Cell surface characteristics and batch experimental data for bacterial attachment were correlated with the transport behaviour in continuous column studies. Normalized breakthrough concentration for metabolically inactive cells (C/C0 = 0.74 in sand) was higher than that for active cells (C/C0 = 0.68 in sand) owing to change in cell surface characteristics. A similar trend was observed in the case of transport through soil columns. There was an increase of 29.5% in the peak C/C0 value at the outlet when the flow velocity was increased from 0.0535 cm/h (C/C0 = 0.61) to 0.214 cm/h (C/C0 = 0.79) in case of sand columns. However, this difference was only 20% in case of soil columns. Peaknormalized concentrations at the outlet were less in soil column as compared to those in sand column because of lesser grain size. Unlike the earlier studies with pulse input, present experiments with continuous input of metabolically active bacteria along with substrate indicated that the normalized concentration at the outlet increased with increased concentration at the inlet. It was found that unsaturated conditions led to more retention of bacteria in both sand and soil columns. In case of sand columns, the normalized concentration at the exitreduced to as much as 0.46. It was also found that the existing mathematical models based on macroscopic advection–dispersion–filtration equations could satisfactorily simulate the bacterial transport except in a case where the substrate was added to the bacteria in the column studies.