A quadratically convergent Newton-type iterative scheme is proposed for approximating the generalized Drazin inverse bd of the Banach algebra element b. Further, its extension into the form of the hyperpower iterative method of arbitrary order p$\leq$2 is presented. Convergence criteria along with the estimation of error bounds in the computation of bd are discussed. Convergence results confirms the high order convergence rate of the proposed iterative scheme.
The critical data we share through computer network gets stolen by unethical means. This unethical way of accessing one’s data without proper authentication becomes intrusion. To solve this issue, in this paper we propose a new network intrusion detection method, Multi-Class Classification Multiple Criteria LinearProgramming (MCC-MCLP) model. MCLP is a mathematical classification technique that is used widely to solve real-time data mining problems. So far, the literature discusses only about binary classification MCLP. But in this paper we propose a Multi-Class Classification MCLP model. We use PSO for fine-tuning the parameters of MCC-MCLP. KDD CUP 99 data set is used for performance evaluation of the proposed method. Our MCC-MCLP method classifies the data better and helps in fine-tuning the parameters with the help of PSO. The resultsclearly show that the proposed model performs better in terms of detection rate, false alarm rate and accuracy.
The optimization of peak detection algorithms for electroencephalogram (EEG) signal analysis is an ongoing project; previously existing algorithms have been used with different models to detect EEG peaks in various applications. However, none of the existing techniques perform adequately in eye event-related applications. Therefore, we aimed to develop a general procedure for eye event-related applications based on feature weight learning (FWL), through the use of a neural network with random weights (NNRW) as the classifier. The FWL is performed using a particle swarm optimization algorithm, applied to the well-studied Dumpala, Acir, Liu and Dingle peak detection models, where the associated features are considered as inputs to the NNRW with and without FWL. The combination of all the associated features from the four models is also considered, as a comprehensive model for validation purposes. Real EEG data recorded from two channels of 20 healthy volunteers were used to perform the model simulations. The data set consisted of 40 peaks arising in the frontaleye field in association with a change of horizontal eye gaze direction. It was found that the NNRW in conjunction with FWL has better performance than NNRW alone for all four peak detection models, of which the Dingle model gave the highest performance, with 74% accuracy.
Software quality is the fundamental requirement for a user, academia person, software developing organizations and researchers. In this paper a model for object-oriented Software Bug Prediction System (SBPS) has been developed. This model is capable of predicting the existence of bugs in a class if found, during software validation using metrics. The designed model forecasts the occurrences of bugs in a class when any new system is tested on it. For this experiment some open source similar types of defect datasets (projects) have been collected from Promise Software Engineering Repository. Some of these datasets have been selected for prediction of bugs, of which a few are not involved in model construction. First of all, we have formulated some hypotheses corresponding to each and every metric, and from metrics validation based on hypothesis basis finally 14 best suitable metrics have been selected for model creation. The Logistic Regression Classifier provides good accuracy among all classifiers. The proposed model is trained and tested on each of the validateddataset, including validated Combined Dataset separately too. The performance measure (accuracy) is computed in each case and finally it is found that the model provides overall averaged accuracy of 76.27%.
Even though there have been great advancements in computer vision tasks, the development of human visual attention models is still not well investigated. In day-to-day life, one can find ample applications of saliency detection in image and video processing. This paper presents an efficient visual saliency detectionmodel based on Ripplet transform, which aims at detecting the salient region and achieving higher Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC). Initially the feature maps are obtained from Ripplet transform in different scales and different directions of the image. The global and local saliency maps are computed based on the global probability density distribution and feature distribution of local areas, which are combined together to get the final saliency map. Ripplet-transform-based visual saliency detection is the novel approach carried out in this paper. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method based on Ripplet transformation can give excellent performance in terms of precision, recall, F measure and Mean Absolute Error (MAE), and is compared with 10 state-of-the-art methods on five benchmark datasets.
A time-domain design methodology for voltage regulation control of dc–dc boost and buck-boost converters based on a multi-loop controller with PI regulator for the outer loop and an inner loop with sliding mode current controller has been developed for renewable energy applications such as photovoltaic (PV)-feddc–dc converters. This paper proposes a new method for the design of PI regulators in such multi-loop control scheme. The proposed design presents a simple analytical method for selecting controller gains and has been validated by simulation as well as hardware implementation. Also, this paper presents an illustrative example based on the proposed design for the voltage regulation control of PV-fed boost converters for off-grid applications. The simulation results for varying irradiation, temperature and load along with stability analysis havebeen presented in this paper. The proposed controller is implemented in hardware for a 1.1 kW PV-array-fed boost converter. Performance analysis based on field test results using real-time weather data validates the proposed design. Therefore the proposed controller could be considered as an attractive solution for off-grid renewable energy applications like PV- or fuel-cell-fed dc–dc converter, where the variations are stochastic in nature.
Handwriting recognition is a technique that converts handwritten characters into a machine-processable format. Handwritten characters can either be presented to machine online or offline. A good amount of research in this area has been carried out for English, Chinese, Japanese and Korean languages. Research is also going on for Indian languages on developing online handwriting recognition systems. Headline and baseline are common features in most Indic languages which divide a character into three zones, namely, upper, middle andlower zones. Identification of headline and baseline is a major task for classification of strokes located in these three zones. A zone identification algorithm is proposed and tested in this text for online handwriting recognitionof Gurmukhi script. The strokes are grouped into these separate zones and are recognized based on respective support vector machine model for each zone. A rule-based approach has also been applied and tested for generation of characters from the set of recognized strokes. In this work, an accuracy of 95.3% has been achieved for zone identification and an accuracy of 74.8% has been achieved for character identification for Gurmukhi script. This accuracy has been achieved when the recognition engines of three zones were tested onthe dataset of 428 characters each written by 10 users.
A low-frequency approximation of the discrete Sommerfeld diffraction problems, involving the scattering of a time harmonic lattice wave incident on square lattice by a discrete Dirichlet or a discrete Neumann half-plane, is investigated. It is established that the exact solution of the discrete model converges to the solution of the continuum model, i.e., the continuous Sommerfeld problem, in the discrete Sobolev space defined by Hackbusch. A proof of convergence has been provided for both types of boundary conditions when the imaginary part of incident wavenumber is positive.
The objective of this paper is to examine the nature of irreversibilities in the form of entropy generation for a micropolar fluid flow through an inclined porous pipe with convective boundary conditions. The governing equations are non-dimensionlized and then linearized using a quasilinearization method. The resulting linearized equations are solved by Chebyshev spectral collocation method. The velocity, microrotation and temperature profiles are presented graphically for various values of governing parameters. Further, these profilesare used to evaluate the entropy generation and Bejan number
Upwinding allows for accurate, non-oscillatory capturing of shocks waves; however, many Riemann solvers (both exact and approximate) suffer from some sort of numerical instability. One of the most mysterious and least understood of these is the carbuncle phenomenon. In the present study, we analyse theclosely allied ‘‘simplified carbuncle’’ problem, also known as the 2D shock stability problem or the 1.5D carbuncle problem. Motivated by the existence of some recently derived schemes that do not exhibit the instability, we perform a thorough stability analysis and extend previous studies by analysing the pseudo-spectra and hence the effects of non-normality in causing this instability. Our results establish that, contrary to previous indications in the literature, a non-linear mechanism is responsible for the instability. In order to understand thenature of this non-linear mechanism better, we perform a non-linear analysis of the sonic glitch, which shares some common features with the carbuncle. We provide two previously unknown results. Firstly, we show that even the ‘‘entropy-satisfying’’ Godunov scheme violates the entropy condition in the sonic glitch. Secondly, we provide a more accurate definition for the entropy condition for scalar conservation laws that supports the previous claim. We conjecture that a similar non-linear anti-dissipative mechanism might be responsible in triggering the carbuncle. This work is expected to lead to a better understanding of possible unphysical behaviour in Riemann solvers and thus help in the design of better solvers for high-Reynolds-number flows.
A class of mixed boundary value problems (bvps), occurring in the study of scattering of surface water waves by thin vertical rigid barriers placed in water of finite depth, is examined for their approximate solutions. Two different placings of vertical barriers are analyzed, namely, (i) a partially immersed barrier and(ii) a bottom standing barrier. The solutions of the bvps are obtained by utilizing the eigenfunction expansion method, leading to a mathematical problem of solving over-determined systems of linear algebraic equations. The methods of analytical least-square approximation as well as algebraic least-square approximation are employed to solve the corresponding over-determined system of linear algebraic equations and thereby evaluate the physical quantities, namely, the reflection and transmission coefficients. Further, the absolute values of the reflection coefficients are compared to the known results obtained by utilizing a Galerkin type of approximate method after reducing the bvps to integral equations whose complete solutions are difficult to be determined.Various combinations of discretization of the resulting dual series relations obtained in the present analysis are employed to determine the least-square solution.
An analytical solution in the form of infinite series is developed for predicting time-dependent three-dimensional seepage into ditch drains from a flat, homogeneous and anisotropic ponded field of finite size,the field being assumed to be surrounded on all its vertical faces by ditch drains with unequal water level heights in them. It is also assumed that the field is being underlain by a horizontal impervious barrier at a finite distance from the surface of the soil and that all the ditches are being dug all the way up to this barrier. The solution can account for a variable ponding distribution at the surface of the field. The correctness of the proposed solution for a few simplified situations is tested by comparing predictions obtained from it with the corresponding values attained from the analytical and experimental works of others. Further, a numerical check on it is also performed using the Processing MODFLOW environment. It is noticed that considerable improvement on the uniformity of the distribution of the flow lines in a three-dimensional ponded drainage space can be achieved by suitablyaltering the ponding distribution at the surface of the soil. As the developed three-dimensional ditch drainage model is pretty general in nature and includes most of the common variables of a ditch drainage system, it is hoped that the drainage designs based on it for reclaiming salt-affected and water-logged soils would prove to be more efficient and cost-effective as compared with designs based on solutions developed by making use of more restrictive assumptions. Also, as the developed model can handle three-dimensional flow situations, it isexpected to provide reliable and realistic drainage solutions to real field situations than models being developed utilizing the two-dimensional flow assumption. This is because the existing two-dimensional solutions to the problem are actually valid not for a field of finite size but for an infinite one only.
CARDIFRC is the trade name of two main groups of ultra-high performance fibre-reinforced concrete mixes – Mixes I and II – differing primarily in the maximum size of quartz sand used (0.6 mm in Mix I,and 2 mm in Mix II). In this paper, the conversion of CARDIFRC Mix II to a self-compacting and industrially competitive ultra-high performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) is described. A full mechanical and fracture characterisation (i.e. size-independent fracture energy and the corresponding bi-linear stress-crack opening relationship) of this UHPFRC is provided.
Sloshing in any type of container may invite instability to it. If some part of the free liquid surface in the annular region of a specially designed circular cylindrical container is covered with an annular baffle, the natural frequencies and the response of the liquid in the container undergo a drastic change. A partly covered free surface shifts the natural frequency above and away from the control frequency of the vehicle, in which the liquid-filled container is placed, which results in the reduction of sloshing mass participating in the dynamicmotion of the system. The fundamental natural frequency of an inviscid and incompressible liquid is determined for increasing width of the baffle that is attached to the outer tank wall on the free surface. It is observed that by increasing the width of the baffle, natural frequencies can be significantly increased. Investigations are also carried out for different values of Bond number, which depicts different states of surface tension, and for varyingvalues of the part of the radius in the fluid region. It is also observed that by increasing the fluid height inside the container, the natural frequencies can be increased, which results in reduction of sloshing.