Studies on inter-speaker variability in speech and its application in automatic speech recognition
Vowel-normalization; vocal-tract length normalization; speech-scale; frequency-warping; linear transformation of cepstra; speaker-adaptation.
In this paper, we give an overview of the problem of inter-speaker variability and its study in many diverse areas of speech signal processing. We ﬁrst give an overview of vowel-normalization studies that minimize variations in the acoustic representation of vowel realizations by different speakers. We then describe the universal-warping approach to speaker normalization which uniﬁes many of the vowel normalization approaches and also shows the relation between speech production, perception and auditory processing. We then address the problem of inter-speaker variability in automatic speech recognition (ASR) and describe techniques that are used to reduce these effects and thereby improve the performance of speaker-independent ASR systems.