Mechanical heart valves; biological valves; valve design; valve performance.
Artiﬁcial heart valves are engineered devices used for replacing diseased or damaged natural valves of the heart. Most commonly used for replacement are mechanical heart valves and biological valves. This paper brieﬂy outlines the evolution, designs employed, materials being used,. and important factors that affect the performance of mechanical heart valves. The clinical performance of mechanical heart valves is also addressed. Efforts made in India in the development of mechanical heart valves are also discussed.